The general and overarching objective of the Academy of Athens, in accordance with its Founding Charter, is the cultivation and advancement of the Sciences, Humanities and Fine Arts, along with the communication of the Foundation and its Members with other Academies and fellow Academicians. In fulfillment of its objective the Academy conducts scientific research projects and studies in the areas of agriculture, industry, shipping, national economy. Furthermore it issues consultations, proposals, it adopts decisions and judgments for the instruction and guidance of the bodies and authorities of the state.

In the context of the objective of the Academy of Athens, its members make scientific announcements, participate in scientific conferences and international research projects and carry out publications. Furthermore the Academy grants scholarships and confers awards. Currently there are 19 Research Centers and Offices in operation. The Academy's latest major contribution to research is the establishment of the Biomedical Research Foundation.
On numerous occasions the Academy of Athens has rendered its services to the Greek state through its expert opinion and proposals, usually on issues of major national importance, education and fiscal policy.
Since its establishment the Academy of Athens has been a member of the International Union of Academies (Association Internationale des Academies) and of the International Council of Scientific Unions (=ICSU). In the course of the past decade the Academy has joined the following international organisations: The All European Academies (=ALLEA), European Academies Science Advisory Council (=EASAC), Inter Academy Council (=IAC), Inter Academy Medical Panel (=IAMP).